Sleep-deprived women are at greater risk for developing heart disease than men. Women who slept five hours or less displayed an increase in inflammatory markers known as high-sensitivity C-reactive proteins, which are commonly associated with cardiovascular disease. The study, which was conducted at Warwick Medical School in England, consisted of 4,600 participants, 73 percent of whom were men. Researchers determined volunteers' sleep duration using questionnaires and followed up with a general health screening exam. Michelle Miller, lead author of the study, said in a statement, "Short sleep is associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk and that association between sleep duration and cardiovascular risk factors is markedly different in men and women."